Véra Eisenmann

Nouvelle traduction : Introduction

Friday 20 April 2012 by Véra Eisenmann

Cheek teeth

1-The upper are stenonine, plicated, with small protocones.

2-The lower, also stenonine, have rounded double knots, pointed linguaflexids, and deep ectoflexids on molars. There are no protostylids on the P2.

Lower Incisors

Infundibula seem to be lacking or poorly developed, at least on the I3 and I2.

Limb bones

Fragmentary, scarce, and polymorphous, they suggest the occurrence of at least two species. I have not been able to find any corelation between the various morphologies and their stratigraphical origin.

1-Third metacarpals
Some are gracile (U II 23 (34)) rather like E. tabeti (Aïn Hanech, Algérie); other more robust (U II 23 (208), U II 36 (138)), remind of E. stehlini (Casa Frata, Valdarno) and resemble specimens of Garba IV (Melka Kunturé, Ethiopie); all, however, may be referred to the same species.
One is very robust (U III 20 (346); it resembles the MC III of Bed I-Lower Bed II d’Oldoway, though it is larger; it gives evidence of the presence of another Equus.

2-Third metatarsals
They are even more polymorphous et more difficult to classify than the metacarpals. Schematically, the largest (U II 23 (38, 39, 40), U II 24 (8) et U III 22 F (3845)) look rather like the Equus of Pirro (Italy) but are more gracile. The other, smaller, resemble E. tabeti, but are less gracile.

3-First phalanges
Two are very robust. The anterior, U II 23 (211), does not differ very much from some phalanges of Oldoway (BK II 49, S4 F832). The posterior, U III 21 (958) may be referred to the same form.
All other phalanges, more gracile, resemble some specimens of Koobi Fora KF- and Chari- (East Turkana, Kenya) although they are larger.

Conclusion

No specific attribution may be proposed but the various morphologies suggest that the Equus of Ubeidiyeh belong to the middle of Early Pleistocene.

Bibliography

Arambourg C., 1970. - Les Vertébrés du Pléistocène de l’Afrique du Nord. Arch. Mus. nat. Hist. nat., Paris, 7ème série, t. 10, 128pp, 67 fig., 24 pl., 57 tabl.

Azzaroli A., 1965. - The two Villafranchian Horses of the Upper Valdarno. Palaeontographia italica, 59 (n.s. 29) : 1-12, 3 fig., 1O pl., Pisa.

69.Nouvelle mission archéologique et paléontologique d’Oubeidiyeh (Israël) : premiers résultats.

De Giuli C., Masini F., Torre D., 1987. - The latest villafranchian faunas in Italy : the Pirro Nord fauna (Apricena, Gargano). Palaeontographia italica, 74 : 51-62, 3 fig., 4 pl., 3 tabl., Pisa.

40.Nouvelle interprétation biochronologique des grands Mammifères d’Ubeidiya, Israël.

37.Koobi Fora

57.Les Equidés du Pléistocène d’Oubeidiyeh.

143.The Large Mammal Fauna of the Oldowayan sites of Melka-Kunturé, Ethiopia.

Guérin C., Bar-Yosef O., Debard E., Faure M., Shea J., Tchernov E. 1996. - Mission archéologique et paléontologique dans le Pléistocène ancien d’Oubéidiyeh (Israël) : résultats 1992-1994. C.R.Acad.Sci. Paris, t. 322, série II a, p. 709 à 712.


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