What name use for ‘Horses’?
E. ferus. Whatever was the ‘Tarpan’, its presently available osteological remains are limited to one complete skeleton (St Petersburg : ZIN 521) and one isolated slull without mandible (Moscow : MGU 94535). Moreover, both Tarpans were old and castrated. Other specimens labelled ‘tarpans’ are the result of tentative genetic reconstructions by crossing domestic horses and selecting which individuals appear, in their exterior morphology, more like the available descriptions of extinct Tarpans. The Pleistocene fossil wild horses differ markedly from the known Tarpan remains. For these reasons, I do not think appropriate to use the latin name of the Tarpan – Equus ferus – for all wild caballine horses.
E. caballus being the name of the domestic form, it does not seem appropriate either. Moreover, I feel that to apply a single specific name to animals whose ranges in space (a) and time (b) are so extensive is not a good solution : do they really belong to a single species? After all, the degree of genetic proximity between the mongolian wild Prjewalsi’s horse and the domestic forms is not clear (Ryder 1994),
One thing is clear, however : the existence of a group of horses, wild and domestic, extant and fossil, which share some associated cranial and dental characters, and which can be united under the name of ‘Caballines’. I insist on the association of characters necessary to define this group (as well as others groups indeed) : a single character may be shared by diverse species or groups of species.
Now, how can we refer to representatives of this ‘Caballine’ group ? And what is the status of the Caballine group, a subgenus? or a species? And what is the status of the diverses forms within, are they subspecies? or simple morphs? In any of these cases, we should ‘formally’ name the horse from Mosbach (for example) either Equus caballus mosbachensis or Equus ferus mosbachensis. If (as it happened) a subspecies was recognized, its name should be Equus caballus mosbachensis lunellensis.
I prefer to avoid this quadrinomial nomenclature, and (with appropriate apologies to the formal Taxonomy…) will use a binomial one : Equus mosbachensis, and specify that this animal belonged to the Caballine group.
[(a) In the Old World, during the late Pleistocene, caballine horses may be found from 75°N (Lazarev 1980) to 35°N (Bagtache et al. 1984), and from 130°E (Kuzmina 1990) to 10°W (Cardoso 1996). At the same period, caballine horses were present in North America from Alaska and Yukon to California and Louisiana.
(b) Members of a single species are supposed to be recognized, not according to their resemblances, but according to their ability to produce fertile offspring. Naturally we cannot use genetic criteria in paleontology, but even in zoology, the answer to a conspecificity issue is not always a plain ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Note that for the domestic horses, at least 77 DNA types were found among the extant populations, and were probably already present 10,000 years ago (Oakenfull and al. 2000).]
Articles by this author
Caballines Nomenclature10 May 2020, by mary harmel
HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK IN 2 DAYS WITH THE HELP OF DR. KEKE ODIN OF GREATKEKESPELLTEMPLE@GMAIL.COM
My name is Mary Hamel, i want to share this great testimony of my life to every one. I was married to my husband Antonio Harmel, i love him so much we have been married for 8 years now with two kids.He went on vacation to Cyprus were he met a lady called Cylee, he told me that he is no longer interested in our marriage any more. i became so confused and started seeking for help, all effort to bring him back failed until i met an old friend called Jane and i told her about my problem. She then introduce me to a man called Dr Keke Odin who caste a spell for her that brought her ex back to her within 2 days. I contacted Dr Keke Odin to help me bring back my husband and he ask me not to worry that the gods of his fore-fathers will fight for me. He told me by 48 hours he will re-unite me and my husband together. After two days my husband called and told me he is coming back home to me and the kids. I was surprise when I saw him and he started begging for forgiveness...we are one happy family now. all thanks to great dr. keke Odin. if you need his help you can contact him via: email@example.com or call +1 561-463-4056