Véra Eisenmann

Véra Eisenmann

Les amateurs de Chevaux, curieux de leur évolution, trouveront ici quelques articles publiés à leur intention dans la rubrique « Diffusion des connaissances ».

Toutefois la majeure partie du site, toujours en construction, est destinée à des spécialistes et fournit des informations (sytème de mesures, mesures, illustrations, photographies, commentaires, bibliographie) concernant l’ostéologie des Equidés. Pour le moment, c’est surtout les Equidés actuels et quelques Equus fossiles (Equus, Allohippus, Plesippus) qui sont documentés.
En ce qui concerne les Hipparions au sens large, mes données sur les formes d’Amérique du Nord (Merychippus, Cormohipparion, etc.) sont disponibles (en anglais) ainsi que celles sur certains Hipparions de l’ex-Union Soviétique, de France et de Grèce.

Mode d’emploi.

Les numéros (1, 2, 3, etc.) dans les tableaux font référence à des mesures décrites dans les rubriques « Outils – Système de mesures pour les os et les dents d’Equus (et d’Hipparions) ». Chaque os est figuré avec les légendes corespondantes, mais il faut cliquer sur les vignettes pour que le dessin apparaisse en taille normale.
La rubrique « Outils » contient aussi des explications pratiques concernant des méthodes d’étude (diagrammes de Simpson, estimations de hauteurs au garrot, différenciation des premières phalanges antérieures et postérieures, etc.).


Most of this site is, and will be, devoted to equids from Merychippus to extant Equus. The information (metric data, photographs, bibliographic references) is given in order to help research specialists or students with their work. Some publications (in « Diffusion des Connaissances ») are intended for a broader public.
The main linguage of this site is French but many articles were translated in English (in particular those in « Tools » concerning methods of measurements).

Instructions for use.

Numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.) inside the tables refer to measurements described in « Tools - System of measurements for Equus (or Hipparion) bones and teeth » where corresponding illustrations and captions may be found for each bone (you have to click on the reductions to make them appear full-size).

The rubric « Tools » contains also practical explanations of techniques such as Simpson’s ratio diagrams, or « recipes » for calculating the withers height or for differenciating anterior and posterior phalanges.

Most recent articles

Most recent articles

The Arab Horse, Prehistoric Horses, and How to Study them, APPENDIX

Wednesday 22 November 2017 by Véra Eisenmann
THE ARAB HORSE, PREHISTORIC HORSES, and HOW TO STUDY THEM, APPENDIX OSTEOMETRY We use a standard method fully described at the web site vera-eisenmann.com. The cranial measurements are illustrated below (Fig.A). For the limb bones in this article we use only maximal lengths. SIMPSON’S RATIO (...)

The Arab Horse, Prehistoric Horses, and How to Study them

Wednesday 22 November 2017 by Véra Eisenmann
This article is intended to provide a description of the Arab horse from the osteological point of view (detailed in the Appendix), and try to explain how we may do so. We also will try to find what fossil horses have resembled the modern Arabs. MODERN HORSES It is enough to look at this (...)

Limb Bones

Thursday 13 July 2017 by Véra Eisenmann

Limb bones morphs are represented by Lozenges: orange for hemionine, yellow for asinine, green for Burchell-like.
Obviously, it is impossible to qualify each limb bone in this way. And obviously in the same species, all bones do not belong in a single category. Schematically hemionine bones are most slender, asinine – less so, and Burchell-like – even less.

Here I present a few examples.

The Senèze equids, Tables

Friday 3 March 2017 by Véra Eisenmann

The Senèze equids, Figures

Friday 3 March 2017 by Véra Eisenmann

The Senèze equids, Text

Friday 3 March 2017 by Véra Eisenmann

The rich material of equid fossils from Senèze is not homogeneous. Beside a few caballine teeth and limb bones (possibly cataloguing errors or intrusive specimens), there is evidence of at least two species. The bulk of the material may be referred to Allohippus senezensis, which by size and proportions is intermediate between A. pueblensis and A. mygdoniensis. One upper cheek tooth and 16 limb bones belong to a very large ?Allohippus. There are moreover a few fossils larger than the average of A. vireti of Saint-Vallier (France), and a few others as small or smaller than ?Allohippus of Pyrgos (Greece). The affinities and ages of various Pliocene and Pleistocene equid species are discussed and illustrated.
Allohippus, A. senezensis, A. mygdoniensis. Equus Sussemionus suessenbornensis. Late Pliocene. Early and Middle Pleistocene.

Equus from Omo Valley, Introduction

Monday 18 May 2015 by Véra Eisenmann
There is no Equus inside Omo deposits before member G of the Shungura Formation (Eisenmann, 1985). According to Table 1 of Alemseged (2003) Tuff G, at the base of member G, is 2.33 Ma old; member H is contemporary with The Olduvai event – 1.95 to 1.77 My. Thanks to de Heinzelin (1983) many (...)

Equus from K20

Monday 18 May 2015 by Véra Eisenmann

Equus collected in 1933 and figured by Joleaud, 1933

Monday 18 May 2015 by Véra Eisenmann

Equus collected above Shungura L 9

Monday 18 May 2015 by Véra Eisenmann

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