Vera Eisenmann

Vera Eisenmann

Les amateurs de Chevaux, curieux de leur évolution, trouveront ici quelques articles publiés à leur intention dans la rubrique « Diffusion des connaissances ».

Toutefois la majeure partie du site, toujours en construction, est destinée à des spécialistes et fournit des informations (sytème de mesures, mesures, illustrations, photographies, commentaires, bibliographie) concernant l’ostéologie des Equidés. Pour le moment, c’est surtout les Equidés actuels et quelques Equus fossiles (Equus, Allohippus, Plesippus) qui sont documentés.
En ce qui concerne les Hipparions au sens large, mes données sur les formes d’Amérique du Nord (Merychippus, Cormohipparion, etc.) sont disponibles (en anglais) ainsi que celles sur certains Hipparions de l’ex-Union Soviétique, de France et de Grèce.

Mode d’emploi.

Les numéros (1, 2, 3, etc.) dans les tableaux font référence à des mesures décrites dans les rubriques « Outils – Système de mesures pour les os et les dents d’Equus (et d’Hipparions) ». Chaque os est figuré avec les légendes corespondantes, mais il faut cliquer sur les vignettes pour que le dessin apparaisse en taille normale.
La rubrique « Outils » contient aussi des explications pratiques concernant des méthodes d’étude (diagrammes de Simpson, estimations de hauteurs au garrot, différenciation des premières phalanges antérieures et postérieures, etc.).


Most of this site is, and will be, devoted to equids from Merychippus to extant Equus. The information (metric data, photographs, bibliographic references) is given in order to help research specialists or students with their work. Some publications (in « Diffusion des Connaissances ») are intended for a broader public.
The main linguage of this site is French but many articles were translated in English (in particular those in « Tools » concerning methods of measurements).

Instructions for use.

Numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.) inside the tables refer to measurements described in « Tools - System of measurements for Equus (or Hipparion) bones and teeth » where corresponding illustrations and captions may be found for each bone (you have to click on the reductions to make them appear full-size).

The rubric « Tools » contains also practical explanations of techniques such as Simpson’s ratio diagrams, or « recipes » for calculating the withers height or for differenciating anterior and posterior phalanges.

Most recent articles

Most recent articles

Nouvelle traduction : Introduction

Friday 20 April 2012 by Véra Eisenmann
Cheek teeth 1-The upper are stenonine, plicated, with small protocones. 2-The lower, also stenonine, have rounded double knots, pointed linguaflexids, and deep ectoflexids on molars. There are no protostylids on the P2. Lower Incisors Infundibula seem to be lacking or poorly developed, at (...)

Oum Qatafa, Introduction

Tuesday 27 March 2012 by Véra Eisenmann
The cave of Oum Qatafa, situated South-East of Jerusalem, was excavated by Neuville (1931). Vaufey (in Neuvile 1931) studied the fauna. Part of the material is said to be preserved at the Institut de Paléontologie Humaine in Paris but I was not able to trace it. Stratigraphy Layer A, (...)


Wednesday 28 December 2011 by Véra Eisenmann
The Hipparion of the Vallesian of Höwenegg was described in an exhaustive monography by Bernor et al., 1997. There are several more or less complete skeletons (here, the data on associated phalanges 1, 2, and 3 are grouped in the same table). My personal data are very scarce. BERNOR, R.L., (...)

Sexual dimorphism in Equus

Sunday 25 December 2011 by Véra Eisenmann
The main and commonly known sexual dimorphism in Equus is the presence of well developed canines at least on the maxillar in males and the almost constant lack of canines in females. Moreover, the pubian symphysis is flatter in females after their first parturition. Concerning the limb bones (...)

Lubéron Introduction

Friday 9 December 2011 by Véra Eisenmann
The material from Mont Lubéron is not homogeneous. It is also often broken and distorted. Together with the predominant Hipparion prostylum (Gervais, 1849, 1859) there are fossils of smaller and larger hiparions (Zouhri & Bensalmia 2005). The data given here correspond only to the part of (...)

Dereivka Introduction

Friday 18 November 2011 by Véra Eisenmann
Since the 1960ies, the site of Dereivka in Ukraine, referred to the Sredni Stog culture, has been considered as the first center of horse domestication. The datations of 4200-4000 BC seem well founded and numerous cultural, anatomic and taphonomic arguments has been advanced in support (...)

Mezin, Introduction

Tuesday 11 October 2011 by Véra Eisenmann
Mezin (Ukraine) is a prehistoric site about 24000 years old well known for its shelter in mammouth bones ( Remains of Equus at the Zoological lnstitute of Kiev, are well preserved although not very abundant. They do not look homogeneous, probably because they (...)


Thursday 6 October 2011 by Véra Eisenmann
About 50 years ago, Jean Brunet, who was studying Equus and Hipparion, took photographs of some British equids, in particular of Hipparion teeth from the Red Crag, Suffolk and left them to me. Some of the teeth were illustrated and discussed by Pirlot (1956). Metapodials of H. crassum have (...)

Montredon, Introduction

Monday 26 September 2011 by Véra Eisenmann
The Vallesian Hipparion from Montredon have already been described and discussed in an old paper 64.Les Périssodactyles Equidae de Montredon.. Here raw data (instead of statistical tables) and more photographs are made available. The material is not homogeneous: fossils of Hipparion depereti, (...)


Thursday 21 July 2011 by Véra Eisenmann
This section contains mainly my personal data (photographs and measurements). Some photographs were also taken from the thesis of Maria-Teresa Alberdi : El Genero Hipparion en España, Nuevas formas de Castilla y Andalucia, revision e historia evolutiva. Madrid 1972. See also : Alberdi, M. T. (...)

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