Vera Eisenmann

Vera Eisenmann

Les amateurs de Chevaux, curieux de leur évolution, trouveront ici quelques articles publiés à leur intention dans la rubrique « Diffusion des connaissances ».

Toutefois la majeure partie du site, toujours en construction, est destinée à des spécialistes et fournit des informations (sytème de mesures, mesures, illustrations, photographies, commentaires, bibliographie) concernant l’ostéologie des Equidés. Pour le moment, c’est surtout les Equidés actuels et quelques Equus fossiles (Equus, Allohippus, Plesippus) qui sont documentés.
En ce qui concerne les Hipparions au sens large, mes données sur les formes d’Amérique du Nord (Merychippus, Cormohipparion, etc.) sont disponibles (en anglais) ainsi que celles sur certains Hipparions de l’ex-Union Soviétique, de France et de Grèce.

Mode d’emploi.

Les numéros (1, 2, 3, etc.) dans les tableaux font référence à des mesures décrites dans les rubriques « Outils – Système de mesures pour les os et les dents d’Equus (et d’Hipparions) ». Chaque os est figuré avec les légendes corespondantes, mais il faut cliquer sur les vignettes pour que le dessin apparaisse en taille normale.
La rubrique « Outils » contient aussi des explications pratiques concernant des méthodes d’étude (diagrammes de Simpson, estimations de hauteurs au garrot, différenciation des premières phalanges antérieures et postérieures, etc.).


Most of this site is, and will be, devoted to equids from Merychippus to extant Equus. The information (metric data, photographs, bibliographic references) is given in order to help research specialists or students with their work. Some publications (in « Diffusion des Connaissances ») are intended for a broader public.
The main linguage of this site is French but many articles were translated in English (in particular those in « Tools » concerning methods of measurements).

Instructions for use.

Numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.) inside the tables refer to measurements described in « Tools - System of measurements for Equus (or Hipparion) bones and teeth » where corresponding illustrations and captions may be found for each bone (you have to click on the reductions to make them appear full-size).

The rubric « Tools » contains also practical explanations of techniques such as Simpson’s ratio diagrams, or « recipes » for calculating the withers height or for differenciating anterior and posterior phalanges.

Most recent articles

Most recent articles

Quneitra Introduction

Sunday 24 June 2012
Biq’at Quneitra is an open Mousterian site (Golan). The fauna was studied by Davis (1988). The mateial I have seen in 1997 in Jerusalem is not exactly the same as published and illustrated by Davis. For instance, of all the upper cheek teeth illustrated by Davis, I have seen only the M2 QUN (...)

Beisamun Introduction

Friday 8 June 2012
Beisamun is an Israelian Neolithic site. I know only about two first phalanges (anterior and posterior) probably belonging to the same animal. They were marked as coming from the PPNB level. Metric data and Simpson’s ratio diagram indicate that they belonged to an E. hemionus. The most similar (...)

Muallaq Symphysis

Thursday 31 May 2012
Fragment of symphysis Muallaq 14 Only two data are reliable: the estimated width at I3 posterior borders (7) and the measured minimal width at the constriction (13). In the scatter diagram Muallaq 14 is compared to extant E. grevyi (Grévy), E. zebra zebra and E. z. hartmannae (ZZH), E. (...)

Nouvelle traduction : Introduction

Friday 20 April 2012
Cheek teeth 1-The upper are stenonine, plicated, with small protocones. 2-The lower, also stenonine, have rounded double knots, pointed linguaflexids, and deep ectoflexids on molars. There are no protostylids on the P2. Lower Incisors Infundibula seem to be lacking or poorly developed, at (...)

Oum Qatafa, Introduction

Tuesday 27 March 2012
The cave of Oum Qatafa, situated South-East of Jerusalem, was excavated by Neuville (1931). Vaufey (in Neuvile 1931) studied the fauna. Part of the material is said to be preserved at the Institut de Paléontologie Humaine in Paris but I was not able to trace it. Stratigraphy Layer A, (...)


Wednesday 28 December 2011
The Hipparion of the Vallesian of Höwenegg was described in an exhaustive monography by Bernor et al., 1997. There are several more or less complete skeletons (here, the data on associated phalanges 1, 2, and 3 are grouped in the same table). My personal data are very scarce. BERNOR, R.L., (...)

Sexual dimorphism in Equus

Sunday 25 December 2011
The main and commonly known sexual dimorphism in Equus is the presence of well developed canines at least on the maxillar in males and the almost constant lack of canines in females. Moreover, the pubian symphysis is flatter in females after their first parturition. Concerning the limb bones (...)

Lubéron Introduction

Friday 9 December 2011
The material from Mont Lubéron is not homogeneous. It is also often broken and distorted. Together with the predominant Hipparion prostylum (Gervais, 1849, 1859) there are fossils of smaller and larger hiparions (Zouhri & Bensalmia 2005). The data given here correspond only to the part of (...)

Dereivka Introduction

Friday 18 November 2011
Since the 1960ies, the site of Dereivka in Ukraine, referred to the Sredni Stog culture, has been considered as the first center of horse domestication. The datations of 4200-4000 BC seem well founded and numerous cultural, anatomic and taphonomic arguments has been advanced in support (...)

Mezin, Introduction

Tuesday 11 October 2011
Mezin (Ukraine) is a prehistoric site about 24000 years old well known for its shelter in mammouth bones ( Remains of Equus at the Zoological lnstitute of Kiev, are well preserved although not very abundant. They do not look homogeneous, probably because they (...)

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