Vera Eisenmann
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Tali, comparaative morphology and diagnostic value (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Friday 13 March 2020 by Vera Eisenmann
Talus, System of measurements Fossil tali are often well preserved and one would hope them to be very valuable for species determination. Unfortunately it is not quite the case. Ratio diagrams in Fig.1 show that average tali of all extant species are very much alike when compared to E. hemionus (...)

Lower premolars or molars? How to tell them apart? (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Wednesday 15 January 2020 by Vera Eisenmann
A lower P2 is not hard to distinguish from a lower M3 (Fig.1). Actually these differences are caricatures of differences between other lower premolars and molars. About seventy years ago Gromova noted them: develoment of the hypostylid (short, wide and flattened on premolars, elongated and (...)

Systems of measurements Introduction (Tools (English))

Thursday 10 October 2019 by Vera Eisenmann
In 1981, the American Museum of Natural History invited a group of Horse specialists at a "New York International Hipparion Conference" with many purposes. One of them was to bring together for the duration of the conference original interesting specimens, in particular skulls, dispersed (...)

Cranial Growth Figures (Cranial Growth)

Thursday 15 August 2019 by Vera Eisenmann

Cranial Growth Tables (Cranial Growth)

Thursday 15 August 2019 by Vera Eisenmann

Figure 1 (Morphological Characters)

Friday 14 July 2017

Limb Bones (Morphological Characters)

Thursday 13 July 2017

Limb bones morphs are represented by Lozenges: orange for hemionine, yellow for asinine, green for Burchell-like.
Obviously, it is impossible to qualify each limb bone in this way. And obviously in the same species, all bones do not belong in a single category. Schematically hemionine bones are most slender, asinine – less so, and Burchell-like – even less.

Here I present a few examples.

Upper Cheek teeth (Morphological Characters)

Thursday 13 July 2017
Protocone length is reprsented by Quadrates: light blue for short, orange for long (Fig.9). Post-Protoconal valley depth is figured by Triangles: light blue for short, orange for deep (Fig. 10). Degree of Plication is represented by Asterixes: orange for few, blue for average, purple for many (...)

Double knots of lower cheek teeth (Morphological Characters)

Thursday 13 July 2017
Double knot morphs are symbolized in Figure 1 by Circles. 1. Standard: blue, Fig. 2 Ectoflexids are shallow on premolars, deep on molars. Metastylids are either rounded or pointed. Lingual valleys are pointed, inserted between the convex faces of metaconid and metastylid, or flattened, or even (...)

Skull-Metapodials Correlations (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Saturday 31 December 2016
Basilar Length (BL) and Metapodial articular and supra-articular breadths (MC10, MC11, MT10, MT11) It may be useful to know what metapodials are likely to belong with a given size of skull. Figure 1 shows how distal breadths of MC and MT are related to cranial basilar lengths on extant (...)

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