Véra Eisenmann
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Various Tools and Notes (English)

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Tools Introduction (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Thursday 2 April 2009

This chapter contains the description of useful "tools" such as Simpson’s ratio diagrams, ways of estimating the height at the withers, etc.



Simpson’ ratio diagrams (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Monday 30 March 2009
INTRODUCTION Simpson’s ratio diagrams (Simpson 1941, Large pleistocene felines of North America. American Museum Novitates, 1136, p.1-27, 11 fig., New York) provide rapid and easy comparaisons, both of size and shape, for a single bone or a group of bones. – The reference is provided by a (…)


Withers height estimations (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Wednesday 1 April 2009
WITHERS HEIGHT The height at the withers of a horse used to be expressed in "hands" (one hand = 4 inches) or in “feet†(one foot = 12 inches), and in "inches". Since one inch = 25,4 millimeters, a horse "21 hands high" or “7 feet high†stands 213, 4 cm at the withers. According to (…)


Variability Size Index (VSI) (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Friday 3 April 2009
VARIABILITY SIZE INDEX (VSI) The Variability Size Index (VSI) is one of the size index scaling techniques used by archeozoologists (Uerpmann 1982, 1986; Meadow 1986, 1999). Using this technique, global size comparisons are possible even of samples of various but fragmentary and not numerous (…)


Weight Estimations (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Wednesday 15 April 2009
WEIGHT ESTIMATIONS Various attempts are possible, in particular those based on the surface of the upper M1, and on some distal metapodial dimensions. No kind of estimation is really good because species do differ by the relations between their anatomical parts and their weight. This is (…)


Correlations between skull and mandible dimensions (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Thursday 16 April 2009
BASILAR LENGTH AND MAXIMAL MANDIBULAR LENGTH IN ALLOHIPPUS AND EXTANT EQUUS: SKULL-MANDIBLE CORRELATIONS 1. Skull and Mandible lengths For a sample of 375 various extant Equus skulls and mandibles, the correlation is good: R2=0.97. Regressions are: – Basilar length of the skull (1) = (…)


Discrimination of Anterior and Posterior First Phalanges (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Saturday 10 October 2009
Differences between anterior and posterior Ph I


Sexual dimorphism in Equus (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Sunday 25 December 2011
The main and commonly known sexual dimorphism in Equus is the presence of well developed canines at least on the maxillar in males and the almost constant lack of canines in females. Moreover, the pubian symphysis is flatter in females after their first parturition. Concerning the limb bones (…)


Tali, comparaative morphology and diagnostic value (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Friday 13 March 2020 by Véra Eisenmann
Talus, System of measurements Fossil tali are often well preserved and one would hope them to be very valuable for species determination. Unfortunately it is not quite the case. Ratio diagrams in Fig.1 show that average tali of all extant species are very much alike when compared to E. (…)


Lower premolars or molars? How to tell them apart? (Various Tools and Notes (English))

Wednesday 15 January 2020 by Véra Eisenmann
A lower P2 is not hard to distinguish from a lower M3 (Fig.1). Actually these differences are caricatures of differences between other lower premolars and molars. About seventy years ago Gromova noted them: develoment of the hypostylid (short, wide and flattened on premolars, elongated and (…)


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