The deposits at the site of Mosbach, Germany, have yielded numerous bones of the first fossil caballine horse well documented in Europe. The age is ca. 500.000 years (Maul et al., 2000) thus somewhat younger than SÃ¼ssenborn. A smaller and slenderer species is represented in the lower levels by a few specimens (Figure 8, Tables 12, 13, 15) probably belonging to E. aff. wÃ¼esti (Eisenmann, in press, Quaternary).
E. mosbachensis was a very large horse. Its weight may be estimated at 630 to 740 kilos, its height at the withers at 155 to 165 cm (Eisenmann 2003, . 136.Gigantic Horses..
It was represented by a rich material including skulls and limb bones. Unfortunately many fossils were damaged or destroyed during the Second World War.
Fortunately Reichenau (1915) published detailed descriptions and pictures of fossils some of which are reproduced in this article.
Crania (Table 1).
On Reichenauâ€™s Plate XI are figured dorsal and profile views of cranium NÂ°30 (this article Figure 1) and a ventral view of cranium NÂ°25 (this article Figure 2).
Figure 3 shows that the crania have a relatively long muzzle like those of E. caballus missi Myssy, Introduction (FranÃ§ais, English).
Upper cheek teeth (Table 2).
The upper cheek teeth figured by Reichenau on his Plate VIII, 3, 4 and 4a are reproduced here in Figure 4.
Figure â€˜4â€™A shows a well developed dP1.
The scatter diagram of Figure 5 shows that the protocones were relatively long.
Lower cheek teeth (Table 3).
The lower cheek teeth figured by Reichenau on his Plates III, IV and V are reproduced here on Figures 6 and 7. The enamel pattern is typically caballine.
Cups are present on all incisors (Reichenau, 1915, Plate XII-2, 4, 5, 6, unless very worn (Reichenau, 1915, Plate XII-7, 9, 10).
Tue limb bones are not moderately robust (Figure 9, Tables 4-11).
Eisenmann V. 2003. Gigantic Horses. Advances in Paleontology â€˜Hen to Pantaâ€™, papers in honour of C. Radulescu and P.M. Samson. Bucharest :31-40, 5 figures, 2 tables.
Eisenmann V. in press. Old World fossil Equus (Perissodactyla, Mammalia), extant wild relatives, and incertae sedis forms. Quaternary.
Maul L. Ch., Recovets L., Heinrich W.-D., Keller Th., Storch G., 2000. Arvicola mosbachensis (Schmidtgen 1911) of Mosbach 2: a basic sample for the early evolution of the genus and a reference for further biostratigraphical studies. Senckenbergiana lethaia, 80 (1): 129-147, 6 fig., 2 tabl., 5 pl. Frankfurt am Main.
Reichenau, W. von., 1915. BeitrÃ¤ge zur nÃ¤heren Kenntnis fossiler Pferde aus deutschen PleistozÃ¤n, insbesondere Ã¼ber die Entwicklung und die Abkaustadien des Gebisses vom Hochterrassenpferd (Equus mosbachensis v.R.). Abh. Grossherz.-Hess. Geol. Landesanst. Darmstadt, 7 (1): 155p.