Véra Eisenmann

Arad, Introduction

Thursday 5 July 2012

 The Equids of Arad (Early Bronze), North Neghev, were studied bt Davis (1980). I have seen part of the material and Simon Davis kindly communicated to me several measures. Unfortunately, his technic of measurements is not identical to mine so that I miss some data and cannot use some other, in particular the antero-poserior diameters (or depth, or "height") of the proximal metapodials.

 Davis refers the larger bones to E. caballus and the smaller ones to E. asinus, but remarks that metapodial dimensions and proportions leave some questions (Davis 1980, p. 297, fig.13).

 In my opinion, the larger bones of Arad belong to an Ass, while the smaller resemble much E. hydruntinus.

E. asinus

The MC III 6872 and the fragment 6157 resemble the MC III of Wadi Muallaq (Simpson’s ratio diagram). The few measures of MT III 5619 and 6110 are smaller than, but compatible by their proportions with, those of an extant Poitou donkey (Simpson’s ratio diagram). The anterior and posterior Ph1 do not differ much from de the Ph1 of Wadi Muallaq (Simpson’s ratio diagram).

On this web-site article on Wadi Muallaq, these bones were compared in detail to extant Equus bones and I shall not repeat these comparisons here.

But to support my determination I can add that the relative lengths of MC III and Ph1 du grand Equus d’Arad are also Ass-like (Simpson’s ratio diagram). The two lower premolars and the lower M3 6169 may also be referred to E. asinus as done by Davis for the M3 (fig.5), and - with a question mark - for the premolars (fig.8).

E. hydruntinus

I refer to E. hydruntinus the MC III 4288 (measured on the photos of Davis), the fragments 5788, 6613, 9362 et 9551 as well as the fragment of MT III 5176 and the anterior juvenile fragmentary Ph1 without number (Simpson’s ratio diagrams).


Davis S.J., 1980. - Late Pleistocene and Holocene equid remains from Israel. Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 70 (3) : 289-312, 15 fig., 2 tabl.

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